Notes From The Underground is believed by many critics to be one of the very first existentialist books in literature. It's an extensive novel by Dostoyevsky, a Russian writer, and consists of memories of an isolated narrator, who's also the main character. He's a retired servant and the majority of critics call him the Underground Man, the voice of his generation. The 1st part of the novel is written in the monolog form and we're reading the man's diary who's criticizing the then-popular Western philosophy. The 2nd part is like a different point of view at the Underground Man and everything that he does and believes in. Dostoyevsky managed to create a convincing, plausible hero of his time that reflects on every important aspect of his life and the lives of people around him. It's like a textbook, a detailed description of what was going on in the hearts and minds of simple and progressive folks in the 19th century.
Chapters 2 to 4 talk about human suffering and the illogical pleasure that can come with it. The next two chapters are about the moral instability of the Man, his intellectual fluctuation. In chapters 7 through 9, the author writes about all kind of theories about reason and human logic. The Man strives to be happy, but his constant liver pain is ruining his life, not to mention the toothache.
However, he speaks of the fact that while the utopian society is capable of taking the pain away, we, the human beings, still need the suffering to truly be happy. He claims that if you take a man's pain away, you'll also rob him of his freedom. The 2nd part of the book consists of 3 chapters and brings the story to a logical end.